Suddenly the fire alarm signal begins blaring inside the cab. There is nothing to do but let the elevator take you to your floor or the floors of the other passengers. If the car’s been recalled, maybe the elevator will stop, reverse direction and begin to descend, non-stop to the designated recall floor. I am sure by now you’d be feeling a bit concerned or maybe even a little panicked. Fortunately, due to several changes in the 2007 edition of NFPA 72, this unpleasant scenario may be occurring less often.
One of the important changes to the rules for elevator occupant notification has been the removal of the requirement for the sound to be heard “in the occupiable area.” Now 126.96.36.199 states that notification rules only apply to parts of the building required to be served by the (fire alarm) system. This change enables the new 2007 wording in section 188.8.131.52.4 to include elevator notification which eliminates the need for audible fire alarm notification in elevator cars. And thanks to the new rule at 184.108.40.206.2, which eliminates the requirement for visible signaling in these cars, any hearing impaired riders will also feel less anxious.
Additionally this wording implies that existing notification in elevator cars may be disconnected. If it’s disconnected, there will be no decrease in safety to the elevator’s occupants. Once the elevator reaches the selected floor or the “designated level,” and the doors open, the fire alarm situation will be evident. “Ding”--they are free to move about the country.
This new concept of ‘leave them alone, there’s nothing more to be done’ is also carried through with other new rules found in section 220.127.116.11 of the 2007 edition of the fire code. This new section also mirrors the new elevator rules by adding similar wording for “Exit Stair Enclosures” and “Exit Passageways.”
18.104.22.168 Notification appliances shall not be required in exit stair enclosures, exit passageways and elevator cars in accordance with 22.214.171.124.1 (and 126.96.36.199.3). To clarify… 188.8.131.52.1: Visible signals shall not be required in exit stair enclosures and exit passageways; and 184.108.40.206.3: The evacuation signal shall not be required to operate in exit stair enclosures and exit passageways.
The current thinking is that those who have passed through the exit (doors) on each floor have done so because they were already notified by the fire alarm system and they are already in the process of escaping the danger. Driving them on would likely cause more anxiety with unnecessary noise and disorienting flashing lights. In fact, all that additional distraction may be dangerous.
In the voice evacuation section of the 2007 edition, 220.127.116.11, the undesirable situation associated with re-notifying the occupants using a stairwell is also addressed:
18.104.22.168: Where provided, speakers in each enclosed stairway shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.
The previous edition of NFPA 72 had this section starting with “Where required…” (because NFPA 72 wasn’t requiring it). In the 2007 edition, this entry was changed to read: “Where provided,…” to make sure the rule is applied not just to stairways required by local code, contract, et al (which may include a requirement/specification to include voice evacuation speakers in the stairwell), but also in situations where they are voluntarily installed in exit stairways. The “separate notification zone for manual paging only” means that if voice evacuation speakers were used in a stairway, the emergency personnel would then have to make a conscious decision to use them.
Strictly from a cost standpoint (which I am aware is not the only or the most driving concern when adding fire safety to a building) you can see why there is reluctance on the part of the building owner to add horns/strobes to an elevator if they are not necessary. The expense of replacing or adding an elevator traveling cable (the cable that attaches the cab to the elevator controller) with new cabling containing more conductors in order to allow for the installation of audible and/or visible notification appliances in the elevator cars, is significant. The traveling cable alone can cost the building owner around $10 to $30 per foot. Add to that installation by qualified, licensed elevator mechanics and you can come up with a substantial number!