Liquidity Risk - The risk that insufficient securities and or funds are available to meet commitments; the obligation will be covered some time later. This is where for certain technical reasons (e.g., stock out on loan, stock in course of registration, turn round of recently deposited stock is not possible) one or both parties to the trade has a shortfall in the amount of funds (credit line) or unencumbered stock available to meet settlement obligations when due. These shortfalls may lead to settlement 'fails' but do not normally lead to a default.
Counterparty Risk - The risk that a counterparty (i.e., a participant) will not settle its obligations for full value at any time. This is simply the total default of a direct participant of the CSD. This is the event when a participant is unable to meet its financial liability to other participants. This risk only goes as far as direct participants of the CSD and excludes clients of direct participants that default on liabilities to such participants, even if such a default should systemically cause the direct participant to subsequently default.
Asset Servicing Risk - The risk that a participant may incur a loss arising from missed or inaccurate information provided by the depository, or from incorrectly executed instructions, in respect of corporate actions and proxy voting. This risk arises when a participant places reliance on the information a depository provides or when the participant instructs the depository to carry out an economic transaction on its behalf. If the depository fails either to provide the information or to carry out the instruction correctly then the participant may suffer a loss for which the depository may not accept liability. The depository may provide these services on a commercial basis, without statutory immunity, or it may provide the service as part of its statutory role, possibly with some level of protection from liability. This risk is likely to become much higher when international securities are included in the service.
Financial Risk - The ability of the CSD to operate as a financially viable company. This risk concerns the financial strength of the depository and if its financial resources are sufficient to meet the on-going operation of the organisation. This risk also includes where the CSD may act as central counterparty, or otherwise acts in a Principal capacity.
Operational Risk - The risk that deficiencies in information systems or internal controls, human errors or management failures will result in losses. The risk of loss due to breakdowns or weaknesses in internal controls and procedures. Internal factors to be considered in the assessment include ensuring the CSD has formalised procedures established for its main services. The CSD should have identified control objectives and related key controls to ensure operation and proper control of established procedures. Systems and procedures should be tested periodically. There should be external audit processes in place to provide third-party audit evidence of the adequacy of the controls.
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