The sight of police and security officers is common on public school campuses in South Mississippi.
Five years ago, the state had 11 officers on campuses in four counties. Now there are 200 in 62 counties, said Robert Laird, director of the state Division of School Safety.
"The program has grown exponentially," Laird said. "It started with a rash of school shootings, but what educators have found is that putting officers in schools has collateral benefits."
The officers, many trained specially for the job by the state, are responsible not only for enforcing the law, but also for safety assessment, mentoring and teaching character education courses and law-related courses to teachers, he said.
The biggest drawback to having in-school police that the American Civil Liberties Union in Mississippi has seen is the ability of these officers to take children out of school and send them to Youth Court for school-related offenses.
Nsombi Lambright with the state ACLU said, "We see children who are in a fight, with no weapon involved, detained. That's the point where parents get upset. They don't want to see their children at Youth Court because they smarted off at teachers."
But Laird believes the benefits outweigh the downside.
"We found statistically that schools with School Resource Officers have a lower student incident rate than schools without," Laird said.
He also said that a survey by the governor's Office of Highway Safety Programs showed that students feel more comfortable in school and learn more effectively with officers on campus.
"We don't stick with a program that is not statistically successful," he said.
Some schools have their own in-house security teams and others rely on city police or county deputies partially or fully paid through grants.
But either way, uniformed officers at high schools, middle schools and even elementary schools are considered a necessary part of the staffing.
"Our kids are living in a different world today than we knew growing up," said Hank Bounds, superintendent of Pascagoula Schools. "We are just so much more aware of the bad things today than when we were in school."
And though school shootings at Pearl High School and at Columbine, Colo., were high on the list of bad things, drugs are right up there.
Security on staff
Moss Point and Pascagoula are among the school systems that have their own in-school team of certified police officers who make arrests without having to call city police.
Moss Point's might be the largest and most thorough security by some measure. But each of the eight South Mississippi school districts The Sun Herald called for this story has a team of security officers, allows random drug searches and uses a drug dog at least once a year to deter drug use or possession on campus.
"These days, you'd be crazy not to have the drug dog," said Biloxi Superintendent Paul Tisdale. "Long Beach got a lot of press about drugs and overdoses, but it's no different than most communities on the Coast. We would be foolish to think we have no problem with drugs. Why would we be any different, really?"
Biloxi has three officers, obtained through federal grants, and 800 cameras at its schools. The cameras may deter drug use, but they are really there for monitoring school life, Tisdale explained.
"They've kinda become part of life and they have taken steps to be part of school life," Tisdale said.
Biloxi's campuses are closed, a common practice now at schools. That means students don't leave the campus for lunch or during off time. One reason for such restraints is "the prospect of litigation" and the fact that "you don't know what they are ingesting" while off campus, Tisdale said.
"It's a different world than it was 30 years ago. It's a different world than it was three years ago," he said. "For example, how many kids leave home with a parent at home in the morning?