SPOT Observation, Not Profiling, Looks to Catch Terrorists

System examines facial expressions, mannerisms, looks for deception

SPOT's officers, working in pairs, stand to the side, scanning passengers at a security checkpoint for signs of any behaviors on the officers' checklist, such as repeated patting of the chest - which might mean that a bomb is strapped too tightly under a person's jacket - or a micro-expression.

Items on the SPOT checklist are culled from law enforcement experience and research on deception and demeanor. What about your face, voice and body betrays the fact that you're lying? I've studied this question for nearly 40 years, since I began researching it in the 1970s with Maureen O'Sullivan, of the University of San Francisco, and later with Mark Frank, of the State University of New York at Buffalo.

We recorded interviews set up in such a way that we knew when a person was lying. Afterward, we replayed the videotapes repeatedly in slow motion to identify the expressions and behaviors that distinguish lying from truth-telling. We spent hours identifying the precise moment-to-moment movements of the facial muscles based on my Facial Action Coding System (FACS) - a catalog of every conceivable facial expression that I created and published in 1978 - to get comprehensive evidence of the kinds of facial looks that accompany spoken lies. Once such expressions are identified, people can be quickly trained to recognize them as they occur.

We also looked at the behavioral signs that accompany the act of thinking up an answer on the spot (e.g., an increase in pauses) and signs of emotion in the face, voice or gesture that contradict the words being spoken ("The answer is definitely no" accompanied by just a slight nod of the head). The facial expressions we identified allowed us to correctly determine who was lying 70 percent of the time; adding the rest of demeanor pushes accuracy close to 100 percent.

Such tools are indispensable to the future of airport security, and more are coming. Within the next year or two, it will be possible to program surveillance cameras hooked to computers that spit out FACS data to identify anyone whose facial expressions are different from the previous two dozen people in line.

Someday, remote surveillance devices may identify anyone whose blood pressure and heart rate are much higher than those of the previous two dozen people. While this will provide an important new way of knowing that something is amiss, it does open a Pandora's box. Legislation to protect privacy and prevent misuse of such a technique should be enacted now.

Meanwhile, short-term research on several questions - whether SPOT misses people whose behaviors are on its checklist; whether other behaviors should be included on the list; and whether additional training would increase observers' accuracy - could help improve the program. Civil libertarians have raised the expected concerns about using observational techniques at airports: that SPOT spots more than just terrorists; that minorities, who fear discrimination and might act more nervous than others, may be unfairly singled out; that most of the people identified are innocent.

But the day I spent at Logan confirmed for me that SPOT violates no one's civil rights. Few people were identified. Nearly always, the answers to initial questions made further investigation unnecessary and no record was made.

Observational techniques are not a substitute for all the other techniques we now use to catch would-be terrorists. But they add another layer to transportation security. They are now being used at fewer than one in 10 major U.S. airports. We need to use them everywhere.

Paul Ekman is a former professor at the University of California at San Francisco and an adviser to the Transportation Security Administration. He wrote this article for The Washington Post.