Wein's is one of the first papers produced outside of the U.S. government to be concerned with this important issue. "There's no excuse for a $10 billion program to settle for performance levels below 95 percent in all cases, and it's my hope that the government will move quickly on this," he says. While changing from a two-finger to an eight- or ten-finger system will necessitate expensive new hardware and major disruptions, Wein says the Department of Homeland Security realizes there is a serious vulnerability in its system and is currently assessing the best way to fix it. Earlier, Wein used mathematical modeling to determine that swift medical treatment, not prevention, is the most effective form of protection against anthrax attacks. That research also attracted the attention of government security agencies, and led to a program whereby the U.S. Postal Service will deliver antibiotics in the Washington, D.C., area in the event of a large anthrax attack.