New alarm technicians are probably less familiar with conventional (IDC) systems than they are with addressable systems. I'll even go so far as to say that the development of the addressable fire alarm system was the biggest thing to hit our industry since the photoelectric smoke detector. And, if we are talking intelligent addressable systems, then I know it is. Virtually all panel manufacturers now offer all sizes of addressable and analog addressable panels—and for good reason, or maybe two good reasons. The first is a reduction in price, from the high-end costs originally associated with these panels.(And the second reason I will touch on at the end of this column.)
Initially these systems were large and expensive and aimed at specific markets where the cost of wiring played a big part in the decision whether or not to use them over conventional panels. The first addressable systems had hundreds, even thousands of points. Since the development of smaller addressable systems (in the neighborhood of 50 points), their popularity with the average alarm company has surged, allowing them to offer the same advanced features the "big companies" offer their customers.
Money savings with addressable systems
Installing an addressable system in a 12-story building can ultimately save big money when elevator recall and other safety control functions need to be provided. This is due to the ease of mapping detectors with their associated relays that addressable systems afford. The code also requires each device on each floor of a high-rise building to be identified separately. Without addressable systems, this would mean that smoke detectors, manual pull boxes, waterflow alarm and water control valve supervision devices would each have to be a wired "zone."
A conventional panel would require more than 50 pairs of wires in a typical 12-story building. Addressable systems make the distinction between device types automatically. In a three-story building, the addressable system still provides proportional savings, albeit not as significant. However, when you factor in the future savings that intelligent sensors provide in troubleshooting and repairs, and even time saved providing smoke detector sensitivity testing, it's easy to see how their popularity has risen over the last five years.
What improvements should you look for in your favorite addressable fire alarm control panel or FACP? First would be the ability to send data over longer distances with existing wire. The ability to move from conventional to addressable technology has been lacking with some panels. Without the need for special wire with a specific number of twists-per-foot and without requirements for a certain "capacitance" or even gauge, the retrofits and upgrades will become more of a parts swap, rather than an engineering project; again, saving time and money. The number of retrofit installations has increased significantly because of the drop in new construction, making these types of flexible features more significant. Also aimed at the retrofit market is a new product Potter claims can synchronize multiple manufacturer's audiovisual devices even when all are installed on the same circuit. To further illustrate the industry acceptance of addressable systems, Potter will be manufacturing this new fire alarm panel themselves—a departure from their usual private-labeling of other manufacturer's equipment. Honeywell is also claiming a market advantage by announcing three new "earthquake proof" addressable panels as being the only ones approved to meet the International Building Code's seismic survivability requirements.
New capabilities and functionality